SQL NUMERIC data type is a data type used to store numeric values with exact precision and scale. It is a versatile data type that can store both integers and decimal values with high precision.
The NUMERIC data type is also commonly known as DECIMAL, and it is typically used in financial and monetary applications where exact decimal values need to be stored and maintained without any loss of precision. The NUMERIC data type can store values up to 38 digits, making it an ideal choice for storing large numbers with high accuracy.
The precision of a NUMERIC data type is determined by the number of digits it can store, while the scale is determined by the number of digits to the right of the decimal point. For example, if the precision of a NUMERIC data type is set to 10, and the scale is set to 2, then the maximum value that can be stored is 9999999.99.
When defining a column with the NUMERIC data type, you need to specify both the precision and the scale. For example, to define a column that can store a monetary value with up to 10 digits and 2 decimal places, you would use the following SQL syntax:
CREATE TABLE my_table ( id INT, amount NUMERIC(10, 2) );
In this example, the NUMERIC data type is used to define the “amount” column in the “my_table” table, with a precision of 10 and a scale of 2. This means that the column can store values up to 9999999.99.
In addition to the NUMERIC data type, SQL also provides other data types for storing numeric values, such as INTEGER, SMALLINT, and FLOAT. However, these data types do not provide the same level of precision as the NUMERIC data type and are generally used for less precise calculations.
In summary, the SQL NUMERIC data type is a powerful and versatile data type that can store numeric values with high precision and accuracy. It is commonly used in financial and monetary applications, where exact decimal values need to be stored and maintained without any loss of precision.