The SQL MERGE statement stands out as a versatile tool for consolidating data from multiple sources and maintaining data integrity. It serves as a powerful alternative to the more traditional approach of using individual INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements to manage data changes.

The MERGE statement’s ability to handle these operations within a single statement offers several advantages, including increased efficiency, reduced coding complexity, and enhanced data consistency.

The MERGE statement allows you to synchronize data between two tables efficiently, making it especially useful for managing data in data warehouses, data integration processes, or maintaining data consistency in relational databases.


Here is the syntax for the SQL MERGE statement:

MERGE INTO target_table AS target
USING source_table AS source
ON condition
    UPDATE SET column1 = value1, column2 = value2, ...
    INSERT (column1, column2, ...)
    VALUES (value1, value2, ...);

target_table: This is the table where you want to perform the merge operation.

source_table: This is the source of the data that you want to merge into the target table.

condition: This is the join condition that specifies how the records in the target and source tables are matched.

WHEN MATCHED: This section is executed when a match is found between the target and source tables based on the condition. You can specify what updates should be made to the target table’s columns.

WHEN NOT MATCHED: This section is executed when no match is found between the target and source tables based on the condition. You can specify what values should be inserted into the target table.


Here’s an example to illustrate how the SQL MERGE statement works. Suppose we have two tables, employees and employee_updates, and we want to keep the employees table up-to-date with the data from the employee_updates table:

MERGE INTO employees AS target
USING employee_updates AS source
ON target.employee_id = source.employee_id
        target.first_name = source.first_name,
        target.last_name = source.last_name,
        target.salary = source.salary
    INSERT (employee_id, first_name, last_name, salary)
    VALUES (source.employee_id, source.first_name, source.last_name, source.salary);

In this example:

We merge data from the employee_updates table into the employees table based on the common column employee_id.

When a match is found (WHEN MATCHED), we update the first_name, last_name, and salary columns in the employees table with the corresponding values from the employee_updates table.

When no match is found (WHEN NOT MATCHED), we insert a new row into the employees table using the data from the employee_updates table.

Common Use Cases for the MERGE Statement

The MERGE statement finds its application in various scenarios involving data synchronization and updates:

Data Warehouse Loading: Integrating data from operational systems into a data warehouse for analysis and reporting.

Data Transformations: Applying data transformations based on source table values to update target table records.

Data Integrity Checks: Identifying and resolving discrepancies between data sources to maintain data consistency.

Data Deduplication: Removing duplicate records from a target table based on matching values in a source table.

Data Archiving: Migrating data from active tables to archival tables for long-term storage.


The MERGE statement is particularly useful in scenarios where you need to synchronize data between tables, such as updating records that already exist and inserting new records when needed, all in a single SQL statement. It simplifies complex data synchronization tasks and helps maintain data consistency within a database. However, it’s important to use it carefully, as incorrect usage can lead to unintended data modifications.