In SQL, an index is a database object used to speed up the retrieval of data from tables. It works by creating a data structure that allows the database management system (DBMS) to quickly locate the rows of a table that match a particular search criteria.

By creating an index on one or more columns in a table, you can dramatically speed up queries that filter, sort, or group data based on those columns. However, indexes can also have downsides, such as increased storage requirements and slower write performance. It’s important to carefully choose which columns to index and to regularly monitor and optimize your indexes to ensure they continue to improve performance without causing other issues.


The syntax for the CREATE INDEX statement in SQL is as follows:

ON table_name (column1 [, column2, ...])
[WITH (index_options)];

The CREATE INDEX statement has the following components:

UNIQUE (optional): specifies that the index should only contain unique values.
index_name: specifies the name of the index.
table_name: specifies the name of the table on which the index is being created.
column1, column2, …: specifies one or more columns on which the index is being created.
index_options (optional): specifies additional options for the index, such as the filegroup or partition scheme.


Suppose we have a table called “customers” with the following columns: “id”, “first_name”, “last_name”, “email”, and “phone”. To create an index on the “email” column, we would use the following SQL statement:

CREATE INDEX email_index
ON customers (email);

This statement creates an index called “email_index” on the “email” column of the “customers” table. The index will allow the database to quickly retrieve rows based on the “email” column, which is useful if we frequently search for customers by email address.

In summary, the CREATE INDEX statement is used to create an index on a table in SQL. It can improve the performance of queries that search for specific values in a table.