SQL DML statements

SQL is a powerful language used for managing and manipulating data in relational database systems. SQL consists of several types of statements, and among them, Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements are essential for interacting with data stored in a database. DML statements are used to query, insert, update, and delete data within database tables. DML…(Continue Reading)

SQL DDL statements

SQL (Structured Query Language) Data Definition Language (DDL) statements are a fundamental part of database management. They are used to define, modify, and manage the structure of a relational database, including tables, indexes, constraints, and other database objects. DDL statements are crucial for creating and maintaining the schema of a database, ensuring data integrity, and…(Continue Reading)

SQL Recursive CTE

A Common Table Expression (CTE) is a powerful feature in SQL that allows you to create temporary result sets that can be referenced within a SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement. While a standard CTE is useful for defining a simple result set, a Recursive CTE takes this concept to the next level by enabling…(Continue Reading)


SQL PIVOT is a powerful operation that allows you to transform rows of data into columns, providing a more structured and readable format for reporting and analysis. In SQL Server, you can use the PIVOT operator to achieve this. The PIVOT operator takes a table-valued expression as input and rotates it by turning the unique…(Continue Reading)

Dynamic SQL

Dynamic SQL is a programming technique that allows you to construct SQL statements dynamically at runtime. This means that the full text of the SQL statement is not known until the code is executed. This can be useful for a variety of reasons, such as: Benefits of Dynamic SQL Adaptability: Dynamic SQL caters to situations…(Continue Reading)

EXEC statement

The SQL EXEC statement, short for EXECUTE, is a SQL command used to execute a dynamically constructed SQL statement or a stored procedure within a database management system (DBMS). It allows you to execute SQL code that may vary at runtime or to call stored procedures without knowing their exact names or parameters in advance.…(Continue Reading)

SQL procedure with parameters

A SQL Server procedure with parameters is a stored database object that allows you to encapsulate a sequence of SQL statements and execute them as a single unit. Parameters are placeholders within the procedure that can accept values when the procedure is called, making it flexible and reusable for different scenarios. SQL Server procedures with…(Continue Reading)

SQL Procedure vs Function

In SQL, procedures and functions are both database objects that allow you to encapsulate a sequence of SQL statements and execute them as a single unit. While they share some similarities, there are key differences between SQL procedures and SQL functions. Here’s an overview of their distinctions: Return Type Procedure: Procedures do not return values.…(Continue Reading)

SQL Table-Valued functions

SQL Table-Valued Function (TVF) is a user-defined function that returns a table as a result set. Unlike scalar functions that return a single value, a TVF can be used to encapsulate a complex logic that generates and returns a table of data. TVFs are particularly useful when you need to perform a set of operations…(Continue Reading)

SQL Scalar functions

SQL User-defined functions (UDFs) are custom functions created by users to perform specific tasks within a database system. One common type of UDF is the Scalar Function, which operates on a single value and returns a single value. Scalar functions are useful for encapsulating logic that can be reused in various queries, promoting code reusability…(Continue Reading)