The BEGIN TRANSACTION statement is a fundamental part of the SQL used to manage transactions within a relational database. A transaction is a sequence of one or more SQL statements that are executed as a single unit of work. The BEGIN TRANSACTION statement marks the beginning of a transaction, and it is typically followed by a series of SQL statements that define the actions to be taken within the transaction.

Here is a brief overview of how the BEGIN TRANSACTION statement works:

Transaction Concept

A transaction is a logical unit of work that is performed in a database environment.
It is a way to group multiple SQL statements into a single, atomic operation.
Transactions ensure data consistency, integrity, and reliability by either committing or rolling back changes.


-- SQL statements go here


The BEGIN TRANSACTION statement is used to start a new transaction.
It indicates the beginning of a sequence of SQL statements that are treated as a single unit of work.

SQL Statements Within a Transaction

Following the BEGIN TRANSACTION statement, various SQL statements can be executed to manipulate data in the database.
These statements can include INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and other SQL operations.


If all the SQL statements within the transaction are executed successfully and the changes are intended to be permanent, the COMMIT statement is used. COMMIT makes all the changes made during the transaction permanent.


If an error occurs during the transaction or if the user decides to discard the changes made within the transaction, the ROLLBACK statement is used. ROLLBACK undoes all the changes made during the transaction, reverting the database to its state before the BEGIN TRANSACTION statement was executed.



UPDATE Employees
SET Salary = Salary * 1.1
WHERE DepartmentID = 3;

INSERT INTO AuditLog (TableName, Action, Timestamp)
VALUES ('Employees', 'Update', GETDATE());


In this example, a transaction begins with BEGIN TRANSACTION, followed by an update to the Employees table and an insertion into an AuditLog table. If all statements execute without error, the changes are committed to the database with the COMMIT statement.

It’s important to note that not all database systems use the BEGIN TRANSACTION statement in the same way, and there may be variations in syntax or behavior depending on the specific database management system being used (e.g., MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft SQL Server).